By Eric H. Cline

ISBN-10: 0691140898

ISBN-13: 9780691140896

In 1177 B.C., marauding teams identified simply because the "Sea Peoples" invaded Egypt. The pharaoh's military and military controlled to defeat them, however the victory so weakened Egypt that it quickly slid into decline, as did many of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized global of the Bronze Age got here to an abrupt and cataclysmic finish. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the process quite a few a long time. not more Minoans or Mycenaeans. not more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving financial system and cultures of the overdue moment millennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, all of sudden ceased to exist, in addition to writing platforms, know-how, and enormous structure. however the Sea Peoples on my own couldn't have triggered such frequent breakdown. How did it happen?

In this significant new account of the motives of this "First darkish Ages," Eric Cline tells the gripping tale of the way the tip used to be led to through a number of interconnected mess ups, starting from invasion and rebellion to earthquakes, drought, and the slicing of foreign exchange routes. Bringing to existence the colourful multicultural global of those nice civilizations, he attracts a sweeping landscape of the empires and globalized peoples of the past due Bronze Age and exhibits that it was once their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic cave in and ushered in a gloomy age that lasted centuries.

A compelling mix of narrative and the most recent scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new gentle at the advanced ties that gave upward push to, and eventually destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the past due Bronze Age--and that set the level for the emergence of classical Greece.

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Extra resources for 1177 B.C. : the year civilization collapsed

Sample text

The pyramids of Giza were already nearly a thousand years old by that point, having been built during the Fourth Dynasty, in the Old Kingdom period. ” And foreigners they were, for the Hyksos were Semites who migrated into Egypt from the region of Canaan, that is, modern-­day Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. 3 The Hyksos invasion of Egypt brought the Middle Kingdom period (ca. 2134–­1720 BC) to an end. Their success was quite possibly the result of an advantage in weapons technology and first-­strike capability, for they possessed composite bows that could shoot arrows much farther than a traditional bow of the time.

Their name for themselves was actually something close to “Neshites” or “Neshians,” after the city of Nesha (now known and excavated as Kultepe Kanesh in the Cappadocian region of Turkey). This city flourished for some two hundred years as the seat of a local Indo-­European dynasty, before a king named Hattusili I (meaning “the man of Hattusa”) sometime around 1650 BC established his capital city farther to the east, at a new site with that name, Hattusa. 54 The location of the new capital city, Hattusa, was carefully chosen.

29 Although it is still unclear whether these ships are from Keftiu (that is, Minoan ships) or are capable of going to Keftiu (that is, Egyptian ships), it is clear that there was contact, and probably direct contact, between Minoan Crete and New Kingdom Egypt during the time of Thutmose III. Because of the prevailing winds, a sailing vessel—­whether today or thirty-­four hundred years ago—­can travel with relative ease from the southern shores of Crete to Marsa Matruh on the northern coast of Egypt and thence to the Nile delta.

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1177 B.C. : the year civilization collapsed by Eric H. Cline


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