By Roger Williams, Verne S. Caviness Jr. (auth.), Ralph E. Tarter, Gerald Goldstein (eds.)
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Extra info for Advances in Clinical Neuropsychology: Volume 2
The true cortex appears to be particularly deficient in small neurons found normally in layers II through IV. In the heterotopia, neurons are not organized by class into discrete tangential laminae, but appear to be distributed randomly. In both true cortex and the heterotopia, pyramidal neurons are aligned normally orthogonal to the cerebral surface, but in the true cortex, many pyramids are inverted 180 degrees in polarity. Their apical dendrites descend away from the surface. Axons of pyramidal neurons arise normally from the inferior pole, but the axon of inverted pyramidal usually emerges anomalously from the proximal portion of the apical dendritic shaft.
The gyral pattern of the ventral and medial cortical surfaces is more normal in appearance. The microscopic appearance of the malformed cerebral wall is also characteristic, and four zones are classically described. The outermost is a thin, cell poor zone continuous with and comparable to the molecular layer of normal cortex. Second is a cellular zone representing the incompletely formed true cortex. The true cortex is separated from a broad field of heterotopic neurons by a narrow hypo cellular band.
Cortex with cytoarchitecture characteristic of the primary visual area is often present bilaterally and connected to the lateral geniculate bodies by a prominent myelinated fiber bundle, the optic radiation. In favorable specimens, Yakovlev found that the single anterior gyrus had no distinct layer IV and contained giant pyramids in layer V, a cytoarchitecture typical of the primary motor cortex. Neocortex of temporal and parietal areas was present bilaterally but reduced in volume, and the prefrontal areas were entirely absent.
Advances in Clinical Neuropsychology: Volume 2 by Roger Williams, Verne S. Caviness Jr. (auth.), Ralph E. Tarter, Gerald Goldstein (eds.)
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